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Workers often build their careers through job-hopping. Job-to-job moves are a primary means by which workers move from lower-paying to better-paying employers, from dead-end jobs to new career ladders. Similarly, employers often seek experienced workers for jobs - workers who are often currently working at other firms. These flows of workers across employers, industries, and labor markets are subsequently quite large - about 1/2 of hires and separations in 2000 were job-to-job flows. Yet until now, they represented a gap in the set of available statistics on employment dynamics.
Job-to-Job Flows (J2J) is a beta release from the U.S. Census Bureau of new national statistics on job mobility in the United States. The data include new statistics on: (1) the job-to-job transition rate, (2) hires and separations to and from employment, and (3) characteristics of origin and destination jobs for job-to-job transitions. These statistics are available nationally and at the state level, by industry and worker characteristics. More information about the data and how they are generated is available in the documentation links provided on this page. More detailed tabulations are planned in later releases.
These data are beta and will become available via the LED Extraction Tool at a later date.
Description of Available J2J Data
J2J Data Series: These files contain count data about job-to-job flows as well as flows to/from nonemployment, nationally and by state. Data is available for all firms and workers as well as by firm characteristics (industry, age, size) and by worker demographics (sex by age, sex by education, race by ethnicity).
J2JR Data Series: These files contain rate data about job-to-job flows as well as flows to/from nonemployment, nationally and by state. Data is available for all firms and workers as well as by firm characteristics (industry, age, size) and by worker demographics (sex by age, sex by education, race by ethnicity).
Line charts showing national trends of the rate data series are provided below.
Not Seasonally Adjusted
National rates, all firms, all workers
National rates, by industry of firm
National rates, by age of firm
National rates, by size of firm
National rates, by sex and age of worker
National rates, by sex and education of worker
National rates, by race and ethnicity of worker
J2JOD Data Series: These files contain origin and destination job characteristics data of job-to-job flows - specifically, job transitions that take place within the same quarter or in adjacent quarters. Data is available by
Learn more about J2J (Beta) by choosing one of the links below.
Description of Filename Components
Series type [TYPE]
Geographical unit of analysis [GEOHI]
Demographic characteristics [CHAR]
Firm Age/Size [FAS]
Industry detail [IND]
Seasonal Adjustment [SA]
Available file formats [EXT] :
For example, the filename "j2j_us_se_f_gn_n_oslp_s.xlsx" is for an Excel file that contains J2J count data for the US with tabulations by sex & education for all firms and NAICS sectors in the nation, all of which has been seasonally adjusted.
Important information about available quarters: The initial and latest quarters of available data vary by state/territory. To see which quarters are available, choose the Version, State/Territory, Type and Format of the data series desired and push the "View Files" button in the selector tool above. A list of files should subsequently appear with two links centered above it. Click on the right link called "Metadata for [State/Territory]" to go to a new web page, which will have a line of descriptive information about the selected data series. The period of available quarters can be found in the fourth column after the type of data series, the 2-digit state postal code identifier, and the state/territory number. For example, the following line of descriptive information:
J2J US 00 2000:2-2014:2 V4.1c-draft 2015Q2 j2jpu_us_20150706_1122
specifies that J2J count data is available for the US from the second quarter of 2000 until the second quarter of 2014.
For the J2JOD data series, data for a given state may be available before the state's initial quarter of available data if other states/territories have data from earlier quarters available and also have job-to-job flows with the given state during those quarters. In such cases, earlier data for the given state can be found in the data files of the other states/territories.
To browse the J2J data files in their directory structure or to access them with FTP program (must be able to access HTTP), go to: http://lehd.ces.census.gov/data/j2j/.